Glossay of Terms

Competency a knowledge, skill or attitude that enables one to effectively perform the activities of a given occupation or function to the standards expected in employment.

Curriculum the aggregate of modules or courses directed toward a common goal of a given organization. May also refer to a collection of required readings.

Delivery system a means of organizing, presenting, or distributing instruction, typically employing a variety of media, methods and materials.

Evaluation the process of determining the adequacy, value, outcomes and impact of instruction and learning.

Instruction a planned process that facilitates learning.

Instructional context the physical and psychological environment in which instruction is delivered or in which transfer occurs. Related Term: Learning environment.

Instructional design systematic instructional planning including needs assessment, development, evaluation, implementation and maintenance of materials and programs.

Instructional goal a general statement of learner outcomes, related to an identified problem and needs assessment, and achievable through instruction (Dick and Carey, 1996, pg. 23).

Instructional objectivea detailed description of what learners will be able to do having completed a unit of instruction (Dick and Carey, 1996, pg. 119). Related Term: learning outcome; behavioral objective; performance objective.

Instructional strategy a general approach to selecting and sequencing learning activities. Related Terms: teaching methods.

Learner profile data descriptions of the learner characteristics pertinent to instruction, including data such as age, skill level, education and work experience. Related term: target population characteristics.

Learning style an individual's preferred means of acquiring knowledge and skills. Related term: Cognitive style, multiple intelligence.

Media the means by which instruction is presented to the learner. Typically classified in terms of the perceptual channels employed, such as visual or auditory media.

Needs assessment a systematic process for determining goals, identifying discrepancies between optimal and actual performance, and establishing priorities for action. Related terms: Training needs assessment, needs analysis, front end analysis, task and subject matter analysis.

Performance improvementthe process of designing or selecting interventions which may include training directed toward a change in behavior, typically on the job. Related terms: Performance technology, human performance technology.

Performance statement an explanation of activities comprising a competency statement.

Target population those persons for whom an instructional intervention is intended. Related term: The learners.

Transfer the application of knowledge and skills acquired in training to another environment, typically a work setting.

Validation the process of determining the extent to which competencies and performance statements are supported by the profession.

© 2003 International Board of Standards for Training, Performance and Instruction